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MBA共享笔记之英语语法概述(三)

[日期:2011-04-21] 来源:  作者:金雯 [字体: ]

第三节 虚拟语气 
一、虚拟式用于非真实条件句时的构成

If I had time, I would go to the movies with you. 

If we hadn’t made adequate preparations, the conference, wouldn’t have been so successful. 

If it were to rain tomorrow, the game would be put off. 
[提示] 

1. 在非真实条件句中, 有时从句的动词所表示的动作和主句的动词所表示的动作并不同时发生,这样的条件句中使用的虚似式称为混合虚拟式。其构成视具体情况而定。 
If I had taken my raincoat when I came out this morning, I would not be wet now. 

If I were you, I wouldn’t have missed the film last night. 

2. 引导非真实条件从句的连词if在正式文件中有时可以省去, were, had, 
should等非行为动词这时应提到从句句首。 

If I were you, I wouldn’t feel sorry. 
→Were I you, I wouldn’t feel sorry. 

3. 有些句子从表层结构上看无if引导的非真实条件句, 但从深层意思上看是存在的。这种情况下主句动词仍需用虚拟式。这类句子中常出现without(如果没有), but for(要不是),otherwise(否则), but that(若不, 后接一从句)等词或词组。 

But for your help, they couldn’t have succeeded. 
要不是你的帮助, 他们就不会取得成功。 

She wasn’t felling well. Otherwise she wouldn’t have left the meeting so early. 
她感不舒服。不然她不会那么早就离开会场的。 

二、虚拟式也可用于其他情况 

1. 在it’s necessary (important, natural, essential, proposed, required, 
suggested, impossible, strange) that…引导的真正的主语从句中动词应用虚拟式, 
表示必要、应该、建议、要求、惊讶、不相信等意。 
It’s necessary that we (should) set out at once. 

It’s proposed that a committee (should) be set up to look into the matter. 

It’s only natural that you should be nervous. 你感到紧张是很自然的。 

The dentist suggested that she (should) come another day. 

It is highly important that we (should) combine revolutionary sweep with 
practicalness. "对我们来说,把革命气概和实际精神结合起来是很重要的。" 

It is impossible that he should have missed the train. 他不可能误车。 

It’s strange that he should have failed in the exam. 

2. 在ask, require, order, demand, suggest, propose, command, insist? 
等动词后的宾语从句中, 动词也用虚拟式, 表示命令、建议、要求等。 
I suggest that we (should) go camping tomorrow. 
He insisted that our laboratory reports (should) be handed in the day afterthe experiment was done. 他坚持要求我们在做完实验后第二天将实验报告交上来。 

He asked that they (should) be allowed to use a dictionary.他要求准许他们用词典。 
The director required that we should work all night主任要求我们通宵工作。 
The mayor ordered that free food be distributed.市长命令发放免费食品。 
The boss demanded that Mary (should) finish it within a week.老板要求玛丽在一周内完成它。 

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